Factors Influencing Parenting and Caring Relationships

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Factors influencing parenting and caring relationships


  • The age of the parents may affect the types of values taught to the children
  • The age of the children will affect the style of parenting
  • The older the parents the more chance of them being financially stable
  • A teenage parent will have less knowledge about parenting or caring

Culture and Religion

  • Cultures and religions have their own forms and ways of parenting and caring
  • Parents holding onto strict traditions and values can cause conflict with the child
  • Inter cultural marriages or marriages between two cultures can cause conflict as there is differences in parenting styles and values
  • A person from one culture/religion caring for a person from another culture/religion can find it difficult as they may have different expectations and standards.
  • Some cultures expect their children to care for them when they become older
  • In some cultures older brothers and sisters have to care for their younger siblings
  • Religion can affect the parents decisions and can affect the families lifestyle


  • Parents or carers with higher educations tend to research parenting or caring techniques independently
  • Parents or carers who take education classes about their role will have the knowledge of skills or techniques to care for the other person
  • Often education on parenting and caring comes from informal support networks
  • The value a parent places on education will be the way in which they influence their child to become educated
  • The way a parent was educated could reflect in the way that they encourage their child to be educated. Eg. Going to uni.


  • When setting limits males and females are often treated differently by their parents
  • A mother may not be able to relate to their son, or father to daughter
  • The gender of the child affects how the child is raised and the relationship they will have with their parents/carer
  • Parents/carers can have expectations of what males or females behave
  • Females may be expected to be the child raiser and the male the breadwinner
  • More females are carers than males

Previous Experiences/Own upbriging

  • Parents may base their parenting on their parent’s parenting
  • Child abuse is often cyclic
  • Parents may continue the gender roles from their own upbringing
  • A parent may parent their child to protect them from some of their own bad experiences in life Eg. Bankruptcy
  • A parent may want their child to live the same life they did
  • If you have been cared for before than that experience can influence the way you would care for somebody else

Socioeconomic Status

  • Affects the standard of living, level of income, occupation, place of residence and level of education
  • Someone with a low SES may need to work longer hours which will affect the bonding time which they have with their children
  • Someone with low SES may not be able to provide for all of their children’s needs and wants and can then cause conflict
  • SES is often cyclical
  • Income determines the resources used to maintain relationships Eg. Family holidays
  • A carer may need to become a carer as they have a low SES and cannot afford formal care


  • The media can establishes social norms which can affect the way in which parents or carers believe that they have to act or be
  • Messages or education about parenting can come from the media
  • Commercials place importance on material good and can then influence the parents to believe that they have to provide these things for families
  • The media can be a barrier in communication in families. Eg. The television occupies the children and they do not communicate with parents
  • Children can gain expectations of what it is to be a parent from the media and can cause conflict that there own parents are different
  • The media can expose the child to material goods which they believe they must have can this can cause conflict with the parent

Nature of Relationship

  • The nature of the relationship between parents and carers can affect their relationship due to the family structure: step-parents etc, age difference, parenting styles, bonding between parents and children, how the parents show their love for their children (Eg openly or not at all)
  • A carer’s relationship with the person they are caring for can affect their relationship. Eg. If it is a daughter caring for a mother or two strangers

Style of Parenting

  • Parenting styles are influenced by culture, own upbringing, religion, media, family, friends and societal expectations
  • The style of parenting can cause conflict between the child and parent especially if the child is a teenager and the parent parents the child strictly and the child is unable to gain independence


  • Involves one or both parents making all of the decisions and rules
  • Parents instruct and direct the behaviour of their children
  • Children must meet their parents expectations or they are punished
  • Children are rarely praised for good behaviour
  • Children may be reluctant to discuss problems with their parents as they may fear the consequences or the child may rebel


  • Allows all family members to have equal rights and participate in decision making
  • When reaching a decision all view/opinions are considered, a vote or compromise will then be reached
  • There is encouragement for children to make decisions and take responsibility for their actions
  • Parents who use this style trust their children and allow them to discuss any issues


  • Parents exercise little control over their children
  • Parents place only few demands on children and address them with little responsibilities
  • There is no system for decision making and children do not learn how to make decisions
  • Children can become self-indulgent, self-centered, rebellious or disobedient
  • The child may feel that they can not talk to their parents or their parents don’t care about them


  • Parents fail to take responsibility for their child’s actions and behaviour
  • No love or concern for the child’s behaviour is expressed
  • The child may become disobedient, aggressive, or show no concern for others
  • DOCS take children away from homes where they experience neglect

Special Needs

Illness & Disability

  • Will require extra time, money, effort and attention from the parent or carer
  • Child or those cared for can feel dependant and can therefore be frustrated
  • It may cause a carer or parent to become overprotected and can cause conflict
  • An parent with special needs may not be able to spend as much time with their children as they may feel sick or tired most of the time
  • Other children in the family without special needs may feel neglected
  • Caring for someone with special needs can be more demanding and can have more of a negative affect on the carer

Multiple Role Expectations as a result of commitments to:





Church and community groups

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