with the ruse q3
Suppose John found a raven, and it was black. Which of the following must be false?
(A) "There exist non-black ravens as well as black ravens "
(B) “There exist non-black ravens.”
(C) “All ravens are black.”
(D) None of the above.
i put it into math-gpt and look what it came up with:
To determine which statement must be false, we should analyze each one in the context of John finding a black raven.
(A) “There exist non-black ravens as well as black ravens.”
- This statement is possible because it simply states that both black and non-black ravens exist. Finding a black raven does not contradict this statement.
(B) “There exist non-black ravens.”
- This statement is also possible because it only claims that non-black ravens exist. Finding a black raven does not imply the non-existence of non-black ravens.
(C) “All ravens are black.”
- This is a universal statement that asserts all ravens are black. If true, it means there are no non-black ravens. Finding a black raven does not contradict this statement, but it does not prove it either. However, for this statement to be false, there should be at least one non-black raven.
(D) “None of the above.”
- This option states that none of the previous statements must be false. Given the options A, B, and C discussed above, only one of them can potentially be definitively false if contradictory evidence (e.g., finding a non-black raven) is provided.
Given the context of John finding a black raven, the statement that must be false will be “All ravens are black” if and only if we come across a non-black raven. However, with just the information of John finding one black raven without knowing the existence of non-black ravens, none of these statements can be definitively proved to be false without additional information.
So the correct answer is:
C “All ravens are black.” if we assume the possibility of the existence of at least one non-black raven.
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So do you agree?