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Nuclear chemistry question! (1 Viewer)

richman92

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Describe in terms of the chemistry involved how commercial radioisotopes are produced and how transuranic elements are produced (7 marks).

I can not find anything 'in terms of the chemistry' :spin:

and also What principles does a GM counter use ??

Thanks for help
 
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tarnished

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For the commercial isotopes questions, I'd answer in terms of this marking scheme:


1 - Define radioactivity OR define "radioactive isotope" [You don't have to necessarily do this first; just do it SOMEWHERE in your answer]

1 - Provides a definition and example of a commercial isotope
1 - Identifies that commercial radioisotopes (eg Tc-99m) can be produced through either neutron bombardment or the high-velocity bombardment of nuclei, and describes the physical/chemical/nuclear processes involved in AT LEAST one of those methods
1 - Correctly identifies the type of radioactive decay involved (alpha, beta, gamma) AND provides correct equations

1 - Provides a definition and example of a transuranic element
1 - Identifies that transuranic elements (eg Plutonium) can be produced through either neutron bombardment or the high-velocity bombardment of nuclei, and describes the physical/chemical/nuclear processes involved in AT LEAST one of those methods
1 - Correctly identifies the type of radioactive decay involved (alpha, beta, gamma) AND provides correct equations


I think if you hit all those points concisely and with adequate description, you should be fine and your teacher will give you 6-7 out of 7; if they're pedantic, they may also ask for a brief outline of the uses of both transuranic elements and commercial radioisotopes, but it's your call.


Hopefully that helps. =D

God, I love Chem~
 

richman92

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For the commercial isotopes questions, I'd answer in terms of this marking scheme:


1 - Define radioactivity OR define "radioactive isotope" [You don't have to necessarily do this first; just do it SOMEWHERE in your answer]

1 - Provides a definition and example of a commercial isotope
1 - Identifies that commercial radioisotopes (eg Tc-99m) can be produced through either neutron bombardment or the high-velocity bombardment of nuclei, and describes the physical/chemical/nuclear processes involved in AT LEAST one of those methods
1 - Correctly identifies the type of radioactive decay involved (alpha, beta, gamma) AND provides correct equations

1 - Provides a definition and example of a transuranic element
1 - Identifies that transuranic elements (eg Plutonium) can be produced through either neutron bombardment or the high-velocity bombardment of nuclei, and describes the physical/chemical/nuclear processes involved in AT LEAST one of those methods
1 - Correctly identifies the type of radioactive decay involved (alpha, beta, gamma) AND provides correct equations


I think if you hit all those points concisely and with adequate description, you should be fine and your teacher will give you 6-7 out of 7; if they're pedantic, they may also ask for a brief outline of the uses of both transuranic elements and commercial radioisotopes, but it's your call.


Hopefully that helps. =D

God, I love Chem~
Thanks u
I really appreciate it
however i'm wondering what chemical processes are involved in the production as when the ions are accelerated to achieve the high velocities it's normally physical
and i think that does not involve any type of radioactive decay as the process is bombardment or another word, nuclear fission , u with me ??
 

hosay

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Thanks u
I really appreciate it
however i'm wondering what chemical processes are involved in the production as when the ions are accelerated to achieve the high velocities it's normally physical
and i think that does not involve any type of radioactive decay as the process is bombardment or another word, nuclear fission , u with me ??
say sumthin along the lines of: start of with suitable target atoms. for neutron bombardment: neutrons accelerated to high enough velocities have sufficient kenetic energy to be absorbed by the nucleas. This increases the neutron:proton ration of the atom, which brings it out of its zone of stability, forming radioactive isotope.... causing it to decay through beta emission (a neutron releases a electron, leaving a proton). Beta decay results in the atomic number increasing, a. give example, e.g Cobalt 59 absorbing neutron to form cobalt 60, which is a commercial radioisotope used in gamma irradiation of food and radiography of industrial parts.

for bombardment with positive nuclei: same stuff about kinetic energy and collision. The nucleus absorbs, resulting in increase in number of protons and neutrons, resulting in instability...to decay..to form desired radioisotope etc..
e.g nitrogen 14 absorbing helium nuclei to form Fluorine 18

btw, when they say chemical, list any physical properties that may be very relevant, particularly in skool exams because the teachers often expect that kinda stuff.
 

tarnished

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Thanks u
I really appreciate it
however i'm wondering what chemical processes are involved in the production as when the ions are accelerated to achieve the high velocities it's normally physical
and i think that does not involve any type of radioactive decay as the process is bombardment or another word, nuclear fission , u with me ??

In this case, I'd generally assume that "chemical processes" means the radioactive decay of the nucleus (my teacher said something along the lines of "the changes in atomic number and mass number can be considered to be of a chemical nature"). Basically, just provide the pertinent (and CORRECTLY WRITTEN/BALANCED - Chem teachers are anal about equations) equations for radioactive decay, and you'll be fine.

And Hosay's right - the bombardment of high-speed nuclei (or if you insist, "ions", although technically that's wrong as "ions" don't have neutrons attached to them. xD) causes the target isotope to increase in atomic number and mass number such that it is now placed outside the zone of stability, making the isotope radioactive (and hence undergoes (usually Beta) decay).

eg (for transuranic elements) U-238 + C-12 -> Cf-246 +4n
 

Aerath

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hey mate but in jacarada chem textbook, they call the bombardment of ions
If you're making elements 93-95, you bombard using neutrons. If you're looking to make elements 96 and above, you need heavier bombarding particles, hence you use ions.
 

tarnished

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Sorry about that. Yeah, I don't use Jacaranda that much (C.Chem FTW), but my school teach said that just to be on the same side, you should call the alpha particles and such involved in the production of radioisotopes "nuclei", just to be sure.

But I'm bad - you guys are right: they are technically ions. XD
 

markbradfield

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Re: Nuclear chemistry question! Easychem answer

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Hey,

This page has some good chemical equations showing the production of commercial radioisotopes:
Production of Radioisotopes (EasyChem)

If you follow the links on the easychem site to transuranic elements, there is a good description on how they are made as well

Cheers,

Mark

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richman92

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Re: Nuclear chemistry question! Easychem answer

i have just finished that previous q. Cheer
And what about this q : Describe physical and chemical processes that need to be monitored at a
nuclear site ?
Thanks for helping, again :)
 

Jungshook

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Re: Nuclear chemistry question! Easychem answer

Do we need to know info about nuclear fission??
 

captainhelium

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Re: Nuclear chemistry question! Easychem answer

Do we need to know info about nuclear fission??
For Chemistry, no not really - it's not in the current HSC syllabus (at least for the core modules as I'm not sure about the option topics). For Physics, if you do Quanta to Quarks, then yes, you will need to know about nuclear fission (not sure about the other Physics option topics though).
 
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