Pharaoh Summary (1 Viewer)


Premium Member
Nov 13, 2002
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Premium Member
Nov 13, 2002
On Ramses I - II

SmokedSalmon said:
I have some Modern Historian quotes for Rammeside Period from Ramses I - Ramses II: Sorry I don't have any others... getting them off my teacher next week. I guess you can come to your own conclusion about what these modern historian's think about each pharaoh.

Ramses I:

? "Ramses had been Vizier and the king?s deputy" (Newby)
? "Ramses came from a comparatively obscure military family? in the Delta" (Newby)
? "The choice of Ramses as Horemheb?s successor was based on three qualifications his ability, loyalty and line of heirs" (Bradley)
? "The new pharaoh was deeply concerned/convince that his accession opened a new ear" (Kitchen)

Seti I:
? "The cenetoph of Seti I was something of a political statement. In the temple he established his image as pharaoh" (Newby)
? "Seti?s tomb is the most magnificent in the Valley of the Kings" (Newby)
? "Seti had certainly made it clear that a revival of Egyptian power in the area was underway" (Newby)
? "Seti could now indulge his twin ambition to be the new Thutmose III and a new Amenhotep III all in one" (Kitchen)
? "The decrees of Seti I show the invocation of magic to support law" (Gardiner)
? "When Seti dies?the country was prosperous and firmly administered" (Bradley)

Ramses II:

? Ramses is the "symbol of the proud majority of Egypt through the ages" (Kitchen)
? Ramses was the "overadvertised hero of Kadesh, a megabrainiac builder and unbridled despot" (Kitchen)
? " unbridled despot, who took advantage of a reign of almost unparalleled length, and of the acquisitions of his father and ancestors, in order to torment his own subjects and strangers to the utmost of his power." (Kitchen)
? "a brash young man...not overburdened with intelligence and singularly lacking in taste... [yet with] tremendous energy and personal magnetism." (William Hayes)
? "Blatant advertising was used to cover up the failure to attain past glories" (Wilson)
? His monuments "attempted to impress by overpowering size, without concern for artistic quality" (Breasted)
? Size and quantity were Rames? "major criteria for artistic effectiveness" (Wilson)
? "Ramses chose administrators wisely and did not hesitate to promote men from outside the narrow aisle of Thebes and Memphis" (Bradley)
? In his temples Ramses "sought to anchor the restored monarchy firmly in centre of the Egyptian religious faith and practice" (Grimal)
? "If a ruler?s greatness be measured by the prosperity, balance and relative contentment of a nations society, then in that sense, Ramses was great" (Hayes and Kitchen)
? "stupid and culpably inefficient general" (Wilson)


Premium Member
Nov 13, 2002
On Pharaohs and their Image -
Eliza B said:
 Pharaohs and their image (with particular reference to the �warrior pharaohs�)

The Pharaohs maintained many different images, these images played vital roles within New Kingdom Egypt. These images consisted of; Pharaoh as the Chief Priest of the Gods, Pharaoh as Chief Judge, Pharaoh as Administrator and Pharaoh as a Military/Warrior leader. All of these images were important to uphold Maat in Egypt.

An important image maintained by the Pharaoh was that of chief priest of all the gods. To be high priest was the most important function of the Pharaoh. This role was significant because when the pharaoh maintained a good relationship between the gods and Egypt, Maat was guaranteed. The Pharaoh acted as a channel of divine power, who performed religious rituals. Evidence to support these claims are depicted in wall paintings; validating that the Pharaohs participated in some daily rituals. Of course most of these tasks were carried out by the priests, on behalf of the Pharaoh. These ceremonies and rituals were not accessible to common people. Daily rituals consisted of cleaning, anointing and clothing the image of the god then offering this symbolic figure, food and drink. Religious festivals were also held, an important festival was called the Heb-sed which renewed the Pharaohs powers to rule. This festival was held on the anniversary of the Pharaohs accession. Some examples of Pharaohs who were portrayed having strong bond with Gods were Ahmose and Hatshepsut. After Ahmose�s victory over the Hyksos, he dedicated all his success to Amun. Where as Hatshepsut maintained a strong relationship with Amun and the other gods throughout her co-regencey and rule.

Another role the Pharaohs played was that of chief judge and lawmaker. The Pharaoh�s image in regards to lawmaker, meant that he/she was responsible for maintaining Maat. Maat consisted of the right order of things where nature was in balance and Egypt was prosperous and secure; this was conceived as a state of harmony and good order of gods and humans. Within Egypt there were no written laws, it was therefore the Pharaohs responsibility to govern all the laws. These were done to keep order, righteousness, justice and truth. Symbols of the Pharaohs power and legitimate right to govern; were the crook, flail or mace. Ahmose (the first Pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty) embarked on several campaigns merely to restore order and re-establish his authority within Egypt after Hyksos domination.

The Pharaoh also played the role of administrator. The Pharaoh was responsible for everything undertaken in Egypt. The image of administrator was represented as a ruler who ensured that all the land was productive, commerce was profitable and the community shared all of the prosperity. Although this was another important role, the king was detached from the tedious details of administration. The Viziers and officials carried out these duties. The Pharaoh Thutmose 1 established the first administration system in Nubia and appointed a viceroy, after his extensive military campaigns.

The Pharaoh was also a commander in charge of the army and navy. It was the Pharaohs duty to preserve maat by keeping foreign people out of Egypt. Some of the New Kingdom rulers have been referred to as �Warrior Pharaohs�. The first prominent ruler to portray the warrior Pharaoh image was that of Ahmose. He achieved this status from his grand military campaigns that inevitably expelled the Hyksos invaders. Thutmose 1 was a mighty warrior Pharaoh who, extended Egypts conquests far into the north and south. Thutmose 1 undertook vigorous military campaigns and hunted elephants for sport. All of this increased his Warrior image. The daughter of Thutmose 1, Hatshepsut (the first female Pharaoh) considered herself to be a �traditional warrior pharaoh sphinx�, as written in her Speo Artemidos inscription. But many Historians ignore fragmentary evidence to support Hatshepsut�s involvement in a military campaign. Also during Hatshepsut�s reign, there were many years of peace, due to her ancestors victories; thus the warrior Pharaoh image was lost. Thutmose 111, was perhaps the greatest of all the warrior Pharaohs. Thutmose 111 undertook apparently seventeen campaigns which were victorious. This young Pharaoh showed generalship of a high order, making unpopular decisions and being proved right, and planning his attack in such a way that he chose his own ground and left the enemy at a disadvantage. Thutmose 111 has been called �The Napoleon of Ancient Egypt� but with some justice. He was a fantastic fighting general and inspired his successors such as Sethi 1 and Ramesses 11 and 111. Like his successors, Amenhotep 11 was an impressive warrior Pharaoh who undertook many campaigns. Also Thutmose 1V extended Egypts boundaries and increased its power, wealth and greatness.

 Roles of Queens from Tetisheri to Hatshepsut
The Queens of the 18th Dynasty played very powerful and influential roles. These included; assisting the Pharaoh with his reign, acting in military campaigns and associating themselves with the gods.

Queen Tetisheri came from non-royal parents (pharaohs usually married princesses and frequently including their own sisters, which preserved family unity). She is also considered by some historians a the founder of the 18th Dynasty. Tetisheri was a woman who initiated the tradition of strong and powerful queens which continued throughout the 18th dynasty. It is suggested that she was the wife of Seqenenre Tao 1 and mother of Seqenenre Tao 11.

Tetisheri was given titles and important roles. She is depicted wearing a vulture headdress and carrying a sceptre. She had many buildings; a Mortuary temple, Chapel, Pyramid, house of Tazeser. Her most important role was assisting the Pharaoh. Tetisheri was very long-lived and during this time aided her husband, her son Seqenenre Tao 11 and her grandson Ahmose in their reigns. Indications of her power are that she carried the symbols of a queen and she had much respect from Ahmose, her grandson. Ahmose makes a dedication to her on his stela at Abydos. Her grandson Ahmose, held Tetisheri in high regard, evidence to suggest this is on Ahmose�s limestone stela at abydos where he dedicates her tributes. Also he built a mortuary building because �he so greatly loved her, beyond everything�.

Queen Ahhotep, was the daughter of Queen Tetisheri and perhaps the wife to Seqenenre Tao 11. She had the title of �Gods wife of Amun� and her tomb was situated at Dira-abou-el-Naga. Ahhotep played a major political role during the unsettled years of Hyksos supremacy. She was thought to be the mother of Ahmose, and may have acted as regent during his first years of reign. Evidence to support her relation to Ahmose, is found on the doorway of a temple at Buhen, her name is inscribed. Also on Ahmose�s karnak stela, he suggests that she may have suppressed a rebellion in Upper Egypt during the Hyksos war. Another piece of evidence to support her military role, perhaps �warrior queen� is a pendant plated in god that has three golden flies. It is thought this was the �gold of valour� given as a reward to achievements in military campaigns. Thus many historians conclude, she acted as a �warrior queen�, assisting her pharaoh in his campaigns.

Ahhotep maintained a strong relationship with the gods and was closely associated with Amun-Re. Ahhotep is depicted with many possessions; a bracelet, chains, mirror, axe, dagger and ship. Ahhotep played a political role throughout her term as Queen, she was also buried near the valley of the kings. Evidence about her was found on Ahmoses stela and in her tomb goods.

Queen Ahmose-Nefertiri held many titles including; �Gods wife of Amun�, �Second prophet of Amun�, �Kings daughter�, �Kings sister�, �Divine consort� and �great wife�. It appears she played an important role during her husband (Ahmose�s) reign. She also lived during her son, Amenhotep�s reign where she was closely linked to the cult of Amenhotep 1 where she may have held a high position. Her buildings were, a mortuary temple and tomb. Her relationship with the gods was strong, she was closely associated with Amun and may have held the title of �second prophet of Amun. Overall Ahmose -Nefertiri had a divine status. She was depicted with prominent front teeth, and is often drawn on some scale as king or god. She had an equal status to her husband and was highly respected by her son.
Queen Hatshepsut, assumed the role of co-regent with Thutmose111 after her husband Thutmose 11 passed away, early into his reign. Hatshepsut (who still remained queen) was a vital assistant to the young Thutmose 111, during her 1st to 8th year as co-regent. She later ascended to become the first female Pharaoh.
Hatshepsut would have played may roles including; that of co-regent governing the land, a warrior queen and a religious figure. The role Hatshepsut would have played as a warrior, would have been from her few military campaigns. There is evidence for a northern campaign, in Hatshepsut�s mortuary temple at Deir-el Bahri. The inscription states �her arrow among northeners� this implies she sent a force to attack these �northerners�. There is also a suggestion by the historian Redford that Hatshepsut also campaigned in Nubia. This is supported by a stela erected that refers to Thutmose 111 slaughtering rhinos in Nubia, once a rebellion had stopped. Hatshepsut�s role as a religious figure was extremely important for Egypt to maintain Maat. She had strongly associate herself with all the gods, especially Amun (the State god). Her Punt expedition was undertaken because Amun commanded her to. Hatshepsut was perhaps the greatest queen of the New kingdom, as she accomplished much, before becoming Pharaoh.

 Roles of Viziers, officials and priests
The most powerful positions held by Egyptians were; the Vizier, Officials and High priest of Amun. This group of Egyptians aided the Pharaoh in; governing the country and maintaining maat.

Viziers held the most important position in Egypt, secondary to the Pharaoh. It is possible that there could be two viziers, one of upper Egypt and the other Lower Egypt. viziers were chosen from Egyptian nobility. The power of each vizier always depended on the Pharaohs favour. While the vizier was a servant, he was also of a princely rank and was treated accordingly. But he had to treat everybody equally.

The king instructed the vizier to carry out his wishes. The vizier roles were important to make sure Maat was maintained at all times. Most of the roles included; total control of civil administration, assessed and collected tax, appointed officials, advised the Pharaoh, controlled public work, supervised royal necropolis and maintained records. The vizier had enormous responsibilities for the kings� country to prosper and to maintain the building of new monuments and food supply.

During the 18th dynasty there was a trend towards vizierial independence and inheritance of office was reversed by kings who chose his viziers from among his followers; often men who had proven themselves as military officers. Powerful as the viziers were, they rarely tried to usurp the throne, for reasons which may have been partly due to personal loyalty, social and religious reasons, but certainly also to the balance of power which existed between civil service, priesthood and armed forces during normal times.

The viziers must have led very busy lives, supervising the building of temples, leading quarrying expeditions into the desert and accompanying their pharaoh on his campaigns in addition to their more tedious duties of coordinating the bureaucracy, hearing petitioners, and playing courtier. It is also interesting to note that Viziers and other officials appear to have always been male.

Rekhmire, a vizier under Thutmose 111 and Amenhotep 11 has an inscription on his tomb that details the role of a vizier. With in this, Thutmose 111 emphases that the vizier must stay in the legal guidelines, dispense justice for all, emphasise the truth and make sure the Egyptian people are not shown arrogance's on behalf of the vizier.

The officials presented the Pharaoh and his command. Officials controlled the four major divisions of administration in Egypt; civil government, religious government, administration of the army and navy and royal domains. Each official held a high status and were supported by scribes, priests and village chieftains. The most powerful officials reported directly to the King, they were usually involved in the day to day running of Egypt.

During the rule of the Hyksos, the Egyptian administration wasn�t completely wiped out. Perhaps these foreigners accepted many values and usage's of the surrounding Egyptian society, used it for their own aims and purposes, as taxes had to be levied and justice administered.

Some important officials in the 18 dynasty were; Senenmut and Ineni. Senenmut held many titles and acted as a very high official during the reign of Hatshepsut. He supervised the building of Hatshepsut�s mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri, temples at Karnak, Luzor, Armant and the creation of obelisks. Ineni it seems was Hatshepsut�s architect and he also was an important official during the reign of her father Thutmose 1.

Priests became very powerful, influential and played a major political role during the 18th Dynasty. In the early New Kingdom priests were supported because of their major allegiance with the Pharaoh. Tributes from conquered land was given to temples which greatly increased the priesthood's wealth. Also priests didn�t have to pay tax. All of this money made was gathered to gain more support for these influential priests.

The priests also acted as a translator for the Pharaoh and the gods. The priests also carried out rituals for particular gods, throughout the day. Most of these were carried out by the priests on the Pharaohs behalf.
The priests were a valuable part of the officials for the Pharaoh, they connected the Pharaoh to the gods and in doing so bought prosperity to the nation.

 Roles of Amun and the Amun priesthood
Amun and his priesthood has a significant function in relation to the New Kingdom. They acted together to help the Pharaoh and his servants make Egypt a wealthy, powerful and flourishing nation.

Amun was originally the local god, but as his worship spread to Thebes he became identified with the sun god Re, and was later worshipped as Amun-Re. This was also due to the establishment of the Egyptian rule over foreigners because of the Pharaohs successes. Amun gradually played an important political role. The Pharaohs used Amun to claim divine birth right, so they would have legitimacy to take the throne.

Amun was considered to be the true father of the pharaoh and his crowning was the recognition of the son by his father. Amun was the counsellor of the king, who consulted the god's statue either in his sanctuary or during a procession, with the statue answering by voice or a nod. The private use of the oracle by the king in the role of High Priest strengthened the validity of his decisions by giving them the approval of the gods, while the public oracle was a tool in the hands of the priesthood to achieve their political and social aims.

Amun is usually depicted in human form, but was sometimes depicted with a rams head, or actually as a ram. He wore a ceremonial beard, plaited and curved at the end. He also wore a short kilt with an animal tail, and a tall hat with two ostrich feathers; and when he combined with Re, an solar disc was positioned between those feathers. Amun would hold the ankh and a wooden sceptre, these were symbolic of his power.

Amun�s purpose in the new kingdom was to promote nationalism and imperialism. Certain Pharaohs, Thutmose11 and Thutmose 111 both attributed their victories in battle to Amun�s support. Evidence to uphold these claims comes from the Aswan inscription and Konossos inscription. In turn Amun would reciprocate, and grant the Pharaohs divine sanction. Amun�s divine sanction was important as it functioned as incentive for the common to be confident soldiers during their battles.

The temple at Karnak became the centre of Egyptian's national religion during the New Kingdom. This temple had giant gateways, many open courts and a sanctuary to the gods. This complex was increasingly important during the New kingdom. The wealth gained in victorious campaigns was housed in this complex by the priests. Thutmose 111, the son of Thutmose 11, had grown up in the temple of Amun, first destined for priesthood. Some historians claim that Thutmose 111 was supported by those who feared that a woman (Hatshepsut) couldn't fill the position of king effectively and became involved in the affairs of the army.

The Amun priesthood's role during the New Kingdom was religious and political influence. They had grown considerably in power since the Hyksos domination, their temples were lavished with enormous wealth, power and prestige. The priesthood used legitimacy issues to increase their influence: Thutmose 1, the son of one of Amenhotep's concubines, became king only because of his marriage to the princess Ahmose, daughter of Queen Ahhotep. When Hatshepsut, a daughter of his and Ahmose, survived into adulthood, he was asked to resign in her favour, which he did in front of his court and the priesthood of Amun. Thutmose 11, his son by a concubine who followed him in the list of kings, did so thanks to his marriage to Hatshepsut, the legitimate heiress.

The priesthood also carried out rituals in the Karnak Temple to emphasize the Pharaohs relationship with Amun. The high priest represented the Pharaoh within the temple. He was usually noble, hand picked by the Pharaoh. Although the Pharaoh also had the power to appoint a new high priest. It is also common for the high priest to become vizier; for example Hapusoneb was the First Prophet of Amun who first became administrator of the temple's wealth and the head of all the gods' priests of Upper and Lower Egypt and finally prefect of Thebes and vizier. Also Ptahmose, was high priest during Amenhotep 111�s reign before becoming vizier too.

The high priest was exceptionally influential and wealthy, and also held power over all the other temples and priesthood. The priesthood were a valuable part of the officials for the Pharaoh, as they gave the nation strength to over throw the foreigners (Hyksos) and in doing so brought tributes to gain the gods approval and thus Egypt was prosperous.
Eliza B said:
Amenhotep III
He reaped the benefits from the conquests of his predecessor, Thutmose II, Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV. Amenhotep III ruled his empire through diplomacy rather than force. he communicated and exchanged gifts with the great kings of Babylon. Incredible wealth poured into Egypt which enabled him to initiate a great building program. He dedicated vast wealth to the god Amun. Amenhotep II built temples at Karnak and Luxor. It was a time of artistic flowering, court life was fashionable and elegant. He was supported by his great royal wife Tiye who also has an influence on the government of Egypt.

Came from established line of powerful kings, inherited a stable country
Son of Thutmose IV and Queen Mutemweya. Thutmose IV died when Amenhotep was only 12. Mutemweya probably acted as regent. Amenhotep had a close relationship with his mother.
Strong influential queen Tiye, non royal background.
After Amenhotep's accession to throne, part of his coronation ceremony was to marry Tiye. This event has commemorative Scarabs made.
Breasted "This was the first time a Queen's name was inserted into the royal titulary"
Many historians emphasized that marriage scarabs show Tiyes non royal background
Amenhotep honored Tiyes parents by allowing them to be buried in richly endowed tomb in the valley of the kings. Queen Tiye portrayed as having exotic appearance which leads historians to believe her family came from Nubia. Amenhotep was rarely represented without Tiye. She was often depicted on the same level as her husband.
Amenhotep also trusted her imput in state matters. Amenhotep publicly honored Tiye who was described "lady of delight". Year 11 he constructed a pleasure lake for Tiye in her city of Djaruka. It is believed they had 7 children, the heir died and Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) became heir.
EVIDENCE - from the Amarna Letters says Tiye played an active role in diplomatic affairs. Foreign rulers directly wrote to her. When Amenhotep died the Mitanni king wrote to Tiye requesting Egypt and their good relations stay the same indicating respect for Tiye.
Children include; Sitamun, Baketaten, Amenhotep IV
Married numerous foreign princesses

Status of the King
Celebrated 3 jubilees which suggest a long peaceful reign
Shown as sportsman, typical warrior pharaoh despite the lack of wars
Diplomatic marriages hint at Egypt being dominate partner
Presented the pharaohs image was an important task
Image of a warrior pharaoh was the most important. Amenhotep presented himself in reliefs as " Superhuman, all conquering warrior king"
Also focussed on the hunter image as evident from commemorative scarabs. These scarabs portrayed Amenhotep to the world.
In the New kingdom it was important to expand borders, during his reign "extending the borders of Egypt was over". Therefore Amenhotep couldn't present this "warrior pharaoh" image the way his predecessors did.
This is why he exaggerated some campaigns e.g. 5th years raids in southern Egypt were turned into a giant defeat.

Marriage scarabs describe him as "smitter of Asiatics"
Victory tablets in mortuary temple
Stela, first cataract depicts Amenhotep killing Nubians
Therefore, Amenhotep never actually lead an army to smite enemies, but it was important that he keep that image as it maintains maat.

Foreign Policy
International diplomacy was carried out
EVIDENCE- Amarna letters show marriages and contact between kings
It was a relationship between Amenhotep and "brother kings". These treaties of friendship provided for assistance against attack by a third party, but forbade a vassal ruler to support an attack against the king Amenhotep.
Amenhotep III ruled his empire from a position of great advantage. the battles had been won, the treaties and alliances made and the administration of the empire established before he came to throne. His role was to maintain and protect what already existed.
Although there were no military campaigns, Amenhotep maintained an army and forts and garrisons throughout the empire
No more need for war, empire controlled through diplomacy - marriage, letters, gifts
Egypt seems dominant partner, no princesses sent from Egypt
Complacency over foreign affairs - rising of the Hittites
Amenhotep governed his empire through a policy of diplomacy
Communicated by letter to great kings; Mitanni, Babylon
negotiated alliances with rulers
Added foreign princess to royal harem
exchanged gifts with brother kings
Employed highly trusted envoys to travel to east
Lettered were used by vassal princes, extensive flattery, and complaints. This communication negotiated marriages.
Diplomatic marriages were done for two reasons
maintain friendly relations
obtaining luxury goods
Foreign princesses were sent to Egypt with rich dowry. The regular exchange of gifts between kings was also expected. No records suggest Egyptian princesses were given to foreign kings
"Never has the daughter of an Egyptian King been given to anyone."
Harem was the women Amenhotep married for diplomatic reasons, yet this didn't affect Tiyes status. Large sums of gold was handed over from foreign kings. A full harem increased Amenhotep's power and status.
It was not until the end of his reign that the Hittite King Suppiluliumash began to challenge the established balance of power. Future Pharaohs had to deal with the full force of this new conqueror.
Foreign policy bought more foreigners and trade to Egypt. From this Egyptians learned skills of foreign artisans, craft influence from the east.

It appears Amenhotep ran a well governed Egypt. The bureaucracy ran smoothly under the supervision of the viziers, public works were maintained and a massive building program undertaken
Brilliant officials helped maintain the countries status e.g. Ramose, Amenhotep son Hapu. Large numbers of chief officials came from lower Egypt. First part of his reign was in the capital of Memphis the moved to Thebes and officials accompanied him. Vizier Ramose was responsible for the day to day running of the vast palace complex. Scribe of recruits was Amenhotep son of Hapu, who was in charge of all countries manpower. High priest of Amun was Ptahmose he was vizier before becoming high priest.
The influence and wealth of these officials is reflected in the size and richness of their tombs

Established trade/tribute system meant large incoming wealth from western Asia, Nubia, Aegean
His rule provided almost 40 years of peace and at the same time the Egyptians enjoyed the benefits from earlier conquests; taxes, tribute, slaves and labour force.
EVIDENCE from tombs gives an impression of the great prosperity achieved during Amenhotep's reign

Building Program
Amenhotep III's building program, surpassed that of any of his predecessors in both quantity and quality. He began his building program early in his reign.
Shows wealth, power and control to embark on such extensive building programs
Shows dedication to Amun, Thebes and other gods
e.g Karnak pylon, Malkata Palace, Mortuary Temple, Temple of Luxor
Amenhotep III reign was the height of prosperity due to trade and tribute boom. This enabled Amenhotep to develop one of the greatest building programs.
Major features
Enormous size and massive sanctuary
Lavish rich materials
quality in design and workmanship
Temple of Luxor
Regarded as greatest building achievement. Designed by Suti and Hor for Opet festival the temple is built out of sandstone, decorated with gold. The building was unfinished at the end of Amenhotep's reign.
Enormous court
Inner sanctuary, statues of Amun
Reliefs depicting divine birth of Amenhotep III
Third pylon at Karnak
Amenhotep III created great gateways built for the temple of Amun at Karnak. He also built canals from the Nile that were 20 years later covered by Seti and Ramesses

Amenhotep Mortuary Temple
Regarded as being the most impressive temple ever built in western Thebes. Two enormous statues of the king himself stood over the entrance.
EVIDENCE -inscription from the building stela has a description of its splendor and wealth.
Malkata Palace
When he moved his residence from Memphis to Thebes he built a new palace on the west bank of the Nile. It was a vast complex stretching 32 hectares. The buildings were one of three storeys, made from mud brick
Amenhotep emphasized his relationship with the gods to ensure their protection in the next life, he honoured them trough monuments benefactions.

Arts and crafts
High standard of excellence, high quality of materials, and workmanship
shows imagination/beauty
shows peaceful country that allowed for artistic development
New style of art appearing suggests intellectual development, perhaps made possible by peace/prosperity
Amenhotep's reign reached "zenith of magnificence" as the borders secured the kingship could flourish in artistic greatness. There were two forms of art; traditional and naturalism. Naturalism in art appeared in statues, tomb reliefs and jewelry. It was not at exaggerated as the Amarna Period.

Suggestions of problems
No force lead to complacency over foreign affairs and allowed the rise of northern powers
Promotion of the Aten may indicate problems. Aten is a link to earlier kings who has absolute power. Perhaps the power of the Amun priesthood was threatening the kings power. Amenhotep showed devotion to Amun, yet began to promote the sun god Aten "dazzling sun disc". Maybe this was diminish the power of the Amun Priesthood.
Image of Amenhotep as fat, lethargic, while this suggests a prosperous reign, it may not have been the image expected of a Pharaoh.

When Amenhotep III died he took with him an Egypt of political and religious certainties, a state that had regained strength and respect at home and abroad.

Redford "Amenhotep III and the Egypt he ruled never had been, nor would again, in such a position of absolute power in the world"

Grimal "When Amenhotep died he took with him an Egypt of political and religious certainties, as state that had regained strength and respect at home and a broad"


Premium Member
Nov 13, 2002


*Amenhotep IV, second son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye
* accessed the throne at age of 16 after brother Tuthmose’s death.
* changed his name to Akhenaten which meant ‘the spirit of the Aten’.
* Akhenaten ruled during the Armana Period and throughout his very controversial reign he has fulfilled many roles as the new kingdom pharaoh such as:
* builder,* administrator, *extender of boundaries, *high priest and he also had an *influential wife.
* most noted for the radical changes in the field of religion.

Akhenaten the builder

* Akhenatens reign was spent building.
* Part of a new kingdom pharaoh’s role was to add to the temple of Karnack which Akhenaten completed after his accession to the throne.
* Carried on his fathers work at the temple of Karnack, but soon after developed his own religious cult.
* One of the biggest building expeditions he undertook was the building of a brand new city known as Akhetaten.
* The city of Akhetaten was built between the city of Thebes and Memphis to avoid any connection with the previous god Amun.
* He wanted to dedicate his new city to the new god Aten.
* Akhenaten also built great sun temples such as the gem-pa-aten with huge statues of the king.
* built The Great Temple of the Aten which was the centre for worshiping the god.

Akhenaten the Administrator

* With the new city of Akhetaten came new officials.
* Akhenaten took with him to his new city a whole new range of courtiers. (This was possibly due to the fact that the old courtiers were brought up with the increasing influence of the god Amun. )
* Scenes on the tombs of Armana nobles depict the issuing of gold collars to honour officials.
* Lichtheim believes that most officials only obeyed him as they were bribed as after his death, they “hastily abandoned his teaching and returned to the comforting beliefs in the many gods who offered help to man in life and beyond death.” This supports the idea that Akhenaten was not surrounded by officials that supported and believed in his radical changes but were brought and offered gifts to obey his orders.

Akhenatens change in Art

*There were many major changes in the art work during this period.
* Akhenaten believed in ‘truth’ most of his art work reflected this belief showing him with a big belly and elongated face.
* G Steindorff and KC Seele state that there was something strangely soft and feminine in the entire constitution of his figure.
*This was possibly to show Akhenatens roles as both mother and father creating a fertile image with his big wide hips and breast, seen in both Akhenaten and Nefertit..
* Another theory suggested by Elliot Grafton Smith about why art had changed, was that Akhenaten suffered from a severe deformity disease which in turn was reflected in his art work.
* French scholar Eugene Lefebvre, even suggested that Akhenaten was really a woman posing as a man.
*Redford states “To me it is the art work associated with his program that remain Akhenaten’s single most important contribution”.
*Redford seems very negative about Akhenatens rule, however it does reveal that during Akhenaten’s reign there was a magnificent change in Armana art.

Akhenaten and Foreign Policy

*Like many pharaohs, Akhenaten had to maintain Egypt’s empire through foreign policy.
* Similar to his father Akhenaten also kept foreign policy running through marriages with foreign princesses with use diplomacy rather than force.
*Akhenaten showed lack of interest in what was going on in his vassal sates.
* His hesitancy to make military action encouraged some states to revolt and the poor communication led to the failure to maintain Egypt’s empire.
* Evidence from the Armana letters shows Akhenaten did not care about anything at the time besides his religious reforms.
* Ties with Mitanni King Tushratta were neglected after his father’s death, with Akhenaten failing to continue his father’s promise of sending gifts to the Mitanni King. *King Tushratta wrote several letters asking for help with internal affairs such as the takeover by Hittites.
* After receiving a letter from King Tusharatta he did not reply and even kept a Mitanni messenger for four years.
*These Arman letters show evidence that Akhenaten did not help maintain his empire.

* Akhenaten did not completely neglect all military matters.
* Scenes of conquering Asians are found in the tombs of private Armana officials more frequent than in any other period.
* Redford’s ‘the Akhenaten Temple Project’ tells us about the evidence of military campaigns during Akhenaten’s reign.
* Redford writes that there were talatat or blokes of stone from Akhenaten’s early buildings at Karnak which suggested victory against Syria and Hittites.
* The inscription on a stela from Nubia suggests that Akhenaten ordered at least one military campaign in Nubia.
* The stela was used to record at least one military campaign in Nubia and told us about a minor revolt in Nubia where Akhenaten ordered viceroy Thutmose of Kush to fight against them.
* This announced the capture of 145 Nubians. However these war tablets may have been grossly exaggerated for the pharaoh’s propaganda campaign.

Prominent wife

*Nefertiti also played a prominent role in religious and political aspects during his reign.
* She was depicted in a kingly style on wall of temples and in statuary driving her own chariot and giving offerings to Aten by herself.
* In one scene discovered on a block at Heliopolis she is shown in a warrior king pose subduing the enemies of Egypt striking her enemies.
* She has also been seen wearing the kingly atef crown symbolizing she was equal in rule. She has been seen wearing a crown which she made her self known as the khepresh which is a blue war crown only typical for a pharaoh.
* Some scholars even suggest that she was a co-ruler with Akhenaten.

Akhenaten High Priest

* Akhenaten’s third year he made serious changes to the religion replacing the old falcon headed man to Aten, a solar disk with rays that looked like extended human arms. * In his fifth to ninth reign he changed his name to Akhenaten to show his full support of the new religion.
* He ordered other temples to be closed and got rid of tradition funerary practices Akhenaten made himself the focus of worship as he was the only one who could communicate with the new god.
* This is seen in the historical source of the hymn to the Aten where it states that that the god can only be worshiped through the “beautiful child of the disk and great queen whom he loves.”
*T-Save –Söderbergh suggests that “No one could see any advantage to worshipping one god when there were several others, least of all a god who so badly protected the land and empire against dangers”.
* The changes in religion did not create much happiness amongst the Egyptian people as they were unable to practice private worshipping but were forced to worship Akhenaten alone.
* After Horemhebs accession little remained of Akhenaten which could suggest his hatred for what Akhenaten did to Egypt’s empire and to the god Amun.
*Horemheb destroyed all things related to Aten from temples to tombs and Akhenaten’s body has never been found.
* this was a common practice known as Damnation Moratorium which meant to ‘damn the memory’ and may not have been because of Horemheb’s great dissatisfaction with Akhenaten.
*The developments of a new god led to many radical changes in the closure of temples and also ceasing of annual festivals.
* Tutankhamun’s restoration stela describes the condition of the land after Akhenatens rule as neglected “their shrines had fallen into desolation and became tracts overgrown with plants”.
* Akhenaten also eliminated funerary practices as other gods were no longer believed in. Egypt had now become a monotheistic society.


* it is difficult to assess the success of Akhenatens reign due to lack of physical remains or evidence in relation to his rule, as many had been destroyed by later pharaoh Horemheb.
* Evidence that still remains however has to be dealt with considerable care as they may be part of a propaganda campaign of Akhenaten.
* New theories from scholars are also just one sided opinions based on the little evidence that remains therefore may be biased.
*Akhenataten accomplished building an entire city and maintained his position as pharaoh for 17 peaceful years.
* He also kept the foreign policy of foreign marriages with princesses and also had a very prominent wife by his side.
* Akhenaten was able to change the religion proving his role as high priest.
* his short lived reforms after his death suggests that nobody really appreciated his new changes.
*It seems that Akhenaten did not have a successful reign in fulfilling military roles due to his complete devotion to the new cult of Aten.


Lawless, Jenifer- Akhenaten, booklet

Hurley Toni, Medcalf Phillipa, Murray Christine, Ralph Jan- Antiquity 2, Oxford University Press 2000

Bradley, Pamela- Ancient Egypt, Reconstructing the past Cambridge 1999

Mary-Anne Phan


is hating uni & study
May 29, 2003
on the dance floor with a bottle of tequila
Thanks to Eliza B


Statue: Red Granite Sphinx

This piece of propaganda was found at Hatshepsut?s mortuary temple of Deir-el Bahri. It is a traditional sphinx where Hatshepsut is portrayed more as a male, wearing the royal head-dress, (broken) uraeus and false beard. It is suggested that since Hatshepsut wanted to be regarded as a true Egyptian Pharaoh, she depicted herself as a formal king; who looks like a man. This is because the Pharaoh of Egypt was presented in a certain way, regardless of the gender of the person, it is a convention.

To reinforce that she was the legitimate Pharaoh, Hatshepsut dressed herself in the full male regalia; shendyet-kilt, ceremonial false bread, folded striped head cloth and various royal crowns. She also acted as god on earth. No suggestion has been make that Hatshepsut was trying to impersonate a man, she merely adopted it to fit into the traditional image.

An historian Tefnin, suggests that since Hatshepsut become Pharaoh during the 2nd and 8th year of her co-regencey, it is possible that as she slowly ascended to the throne, thus her image gradually changed to mirror that of Pharaoh. The people of Egypt would have accepted Hatshepsut?s behavior, if her image was changed over a long period of time.

All of this evidence shows that Hatshepsut believed that for her to become a legitimate Pharaoh, she should take on the image of a traditional Pharaoh. Most Egyptians couldn?t read, so they wanted to see statues of their Pharaoh depicted as a king. If Hatshepsut had represented herself as a female, it would be going against Egyptian tradition and could cause a disruption to Maat (the order in Egypt).

Another interesting point is that she could have done this for a public image. Egypt at this stage was a patriarchal society. Perhaps she felt it would have more impact if she represented herself as a male rather than a female. Nevertheless, the Egyptian people knew she was a female. It was simply a matter of presenting herself that way.

Inscription: Speos Artemidos

An interesting piece of Hatshepsut?s propaganda is her fragmentary inscription, at her Temple at Speos Artmidos. This is very important, as it refers to her administration. This inscription can also be called ?Beni Hasan?. The inscription discusses her influence, contributions and achievements to Egypt at the time of her rule. Hatshpesut claims to be a great ruler, who was assisted by the gods. Hatshepsut also points out that she was no different from the other Pharaohs.

Hatshepsut?s temple is 2 kilometres south of Beni Hasan (now el-Minia), she built this sometime between her 10th and 17th year. This is a small temple that was curved in the rocks and dedicated to the cat-headed goddess "Pakhet". The temple is known by its Greek name "Speos Artemidos" (The Grotto of Artemis). The temple consists of a vestibule and a narrow passage leading to a sanctuary. In the original design, Hatshepsut made no mention of Thutmose III, but later, he and "Seti I" added their names.

To avoid this inscription being destroyed it was written on a facade high on the cliffs. There, Hatshepsut made a long dedication recording the chronological events of her successive years and her supremacy forever.

In the ?Speos Artemidos? inscription, Hatshepsut announces the theme of her reign, which revolves around her rapid building campaigns. She described herself as the one who was destined to rule, by the gods. She also claims to control foreign countries and receive their tribute, and supported and furnished an army. Hatshepsut declared that she has restored the ritual purity of the temples. She say that Amun ordered her to complete these tasks. In the last piece of the inscription she summaries herself as a good Pharaoh, who has repaired all that was plundered by the Hyksos. Within this inscription Hatshepsut was trying to attribute her success as Pharaoh to the rebuilding program after Hyksos rule, to regain Maat in Egypt.

This Inscription demonstrates that Hatshepsut was a powerful Pharaoh who crushed enemies, rebuilt and maintained a stable leadership role. She may have exaggerated her claims a little, but that is common for most Pharaohs. Some historians have been noted to say Hatshepsut only wrote the inscription to claim her legitimacy to the throne. This could possibly be true, seeing as it supports her relationship with the gods and in doing so justifies her legitimacy.

Relief: Punt Expedition
These reliefs depicted on Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri highlight her extraordinary expedition to Punt. This trading expedition was not the only one she did, but it was the most important to her. These Punt reliefs are important because they are the most valuable source of information on Egyptian trading via the sea.

The expedition took place over 9 years and was lead by Nehsy. Punt was to the south of Egypt, possibly between the Blue Nile and the Red Sea. There are arguments claiming Punt would be today southern Sudan or Ethiopia, because the of the vegetation shown in Egyptian relief's. There had been a long interval when Egypt's trade contacts had not reached this far, and it may be that Hatshepsut emphasized the Punt expedition because it symbolized a return to the level of imperial power that accommodated easy access to luxury goods from far-off lands. It is said that Hatshepsut was motivated to furnish this expedition because Amun commanded her to.

The relief starts with a depiction of how Punt looks(1). There are conical houses built on stilts, groups or fish, date palms, frankincense and ebony trees, long and short horned cattle, and a donkey. Next is the reception in Punt(2), where Paruhu (the king of Punt) and Eti (his queen) greet the Egyptian traders with a fearful nature. The goods to be traded with the Puntites are of lesser value than the tribute the Egyptains are receiving. This suggests Hatshepsut thought of his expedition as equal to a military campaign, Egypt was the victor and thus receives tribute for being superior. The "exchange" of goods with the Puntites is finished(3) and the myrrh-trees, electrum, and other items are then shown being loaded onto the boats with all the tribute (wood, resan, ivory and ebony) and returning home. Slaves are also shown being escorted onto the ships, indicating Egypt's supremacy. The leaders of the Punt expedition have returned to Thebes (4), and are presenting the goods and chieftains of punt (slaves) to Hatshepsut. This scene is continued (5) with a relief of a myrrh mound, that is enormous, incense trees have also been planted in the background. Next in an ostentatious display of devotion (6), Hatshepsut offers these lavish amounts of items to the god Amun, helping herself to weigh and measure the quantities involved and reminding the god that the expedition was initiated at his order. In the final relief(7), the success of the mission is then announced to Amun and to the court.

The purpose of this expedition was for foreign trading partners to be established, for Hatshepsut to show Egyptian supremacy over foreign countries and for Hatshepsut to follow Amun?s wishes.

The Punt expedition shows that Hatshepsut wanted to establish herself as a ruler who ?(went) to a land that nobody knew about? and extended Egypt's boundaries without military intervention. Her reign was one of peace and prosperity where maat was maintained. The expedition to Punt is regarded as one of her major accomplishments.

Building: Deir el-Bahri Mortuary Temple

Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri named ?Djeser-Djeseru? meaning holy of holies, was itself a material statement about her reign, an assertion of her claim to the throne and the proclamation of her "official" assessment of her accomplishments. This temple was dedicated to Amun to emphasize her relationship with him, in both architecture and reliefs. It also reflect on her role of traditional Pharaoh which she legitimatises throughout. Deir el-Bahri is a continuous reminder to the Egyptians that her reign brought wealth and prosperity.

This Temple was not only built to serve Hatshepsut as a Mortuary Temple, but it also functions as a recording of religious events. It took a long 15 years to complete, and much of its design was copied from the Temple of Mentuhotep. Although, Deir el-Bahri far surpasses anything ever built before in architecture and reliefs.

The Temple was built on three terraced levels. The Lower Court has many scenes here that have been destroyed. The Middle Court has the Anubis Chapel. This chapel has figures of many gods; Anubis, Nekheb, Uaset, Amen-Ra, Harmachis, Osiris (but Anubis occurs the most). In one scene (now erased) Hatshepsut makes offerings to him. The Birth Coronation relief is also here, (these scenes repeated on the walls of the temple at Karnak) and show Hatshepsut's divine birth (much has been damaged). The Punt relief is also at Deir el-Bahri. These scenes show the famous expedition to Punt during Hatshepsut's reign. The Upper Court consists of niches in the wall, in the middle is a doorway which leads to the inner sanctuary. The decoration inside consists of scenes with gods and more figures of Hatshepsut have been destroyed here. In the Sanctuary there are various scenes of offerings to Amun-Re; Hatshepsut and her daughter Neferure kneel before Amun Re; Hatshepsut, Thutmose 111 and the Princess Neferure sacrifice ships to Amen-Re. After Hatshepsut passed away and 20 years later this Mortuary Temple and was altered by Thutmose 111. He replaced Hatshpesuts image with that of his father; or erased her image completely. Akhenaten then attacked the image of Amun Re during his religious ?crusade? against the old gods, some additions to the temple were made by Ramesses 11, Merneptah inscribed his name on the walls.

Deir el-Bahri functions as a link between Hatshepsut and the god Amun (which is an old ritual). This grand complex has a magnificent design, extraordinary reliefs, graphic graffiti and a mysterious tomb was a architectural monument in those days. Djeser-Djeseru affirms that Hatshepsut was keen to prove her ties to the gods and maintain a strong relationship with her ?father?Amun.

Statue: Senenmut and Neferure
This piece of propaganda relating to Senenmut and his relationship to the King and her daughter was taken from his tomb first constructed at Sheikh Abd el-Qurna. This tomb still holds this block statue of Senenmut holding Neferure on his lap.

It is clear from this statue of Senenmut holding Neferure, that he enjoyed a very close relationship with Neferure - the daughter of Hatshepsut. It is possible that this position perhaps gained him favour in King Hatshepsut?s eyes; as tutor to her daughter. The majority of images found of Senenmut usually depict Neferure aswell. Some historians have argued that Senenmut only educated Neferure because of his relationship with Hatshepsut. This argument is supported by some evidence that is quite probably inaccurate. The evidence is a improper depiction of Senenmut and Hatshepsut, in a cave behind Deir el-Bahri. I dispute this evidence, and believe Senenmut and Hatsehpsut?s relationship was purely as Pharaoh to high official.

Senenmut was probably Hatshepsut?s most trusted official, although he never reached vizier status. It is considered that he has been a victim of ?bad press? possibly due to his commoner background, and has yet ?enjoyed privileges and prerogatives never before extended to a mere official.

Senenmut rose from a humble background (his family, Ramose and Hatnefer came from Armant), he was to become under Hatshepsut's reign one of the most powerful men in the country. There is speculation as to whether this was due to Senenmut's own natural talents as an administrator that caused his rise to power, or was there a close personal relationship between the King and her official?

Senenmut originally entered the royal court during the reign of Thutmose 11, but under Hatshepsut he eventually obtained over 80 titles during his period as an official and administrator working in the royal court.

Despite the claims of a love affair between Hatshepsut and Senenmut, it is clear that Senenmut was a man with some talent at his job. One of his earlier jobs was ?Mouth of the Palace? where he was spokesperson for the king, which implies his good communication abilities that were perhaps later very influential. Throughout Senenmuts life, he adopted many titles; his most important positions were-
 ?Chief steward of Amun?
 ?Chief steward of the King?
 ?Controller of work?
 ?Overseer of the storehouse of Amun?

These titles enabled him to supervise the transport and erection of the obelisks at the temple of Amun-Re at Karnak and the building of Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri.
Although Senenmut was never appointed as Vizier, he took on the functions of one.
His claim, ?I was the one to whom the affairs of the two lands were reported, that which South and North contributed was my sea!? indicates his power.

The claims that Hatshepsut and Senenmut were lovers, was suggested by some scholars.
This is because of all the honours he was granted while being an official. He was allowed over 80 titles, statues erected of himself, engraving his name in mortuary temples and have a quartz sarcophagus for himself, which was only used by royalty. Also there is a ?very graphic? representation of what is thought of be Hatshepsut and Senenmut in a cave behind Deir el-Bahri. This evidence is probably inaccurate because it could apply to any other Pharaohs, and if it was drawn by workmen it could be comic depiction that is false.

Some historians have even gone further to state that perhaps Neferure was the daughter of Senenmut. This could be quite debatable, seeing as there are many statues and reliefs showing Senenmut and Neferure together. But it is more likely that he took care of her, and adopted ?a fatherly image? seeing as Thutmose 11 was dead.

Evidence to prove that the claims of Hatshepsut and Senenmut having an affair are inaccurate, is that if these two people were lovers, why didn?t Hatshepsut promote Senenmut to Vizier and then he could have had free access to her everyday. Another piece of evidence is that there are no wall paintings depicting Senenmut with his wife and children. An historian Meyer, claims that it was highly uncommon not to portray yourself without your family in Egyptian times. This leads me to the conclusion that Senenmut remained a bachelor all his life. Meyer legitimises this information by adding evidence to support her claims
 He is shown only with his parents on his funerary stela
 He is shown alone, in scenes from the book of the dead
 His brother, rather than a son carried out his funerary rites.
Another point that should be mentioned, is that is was quite possible that Senenmut didn?t marry because he was homosexual, or remained a widower all his life.
The fact that Hatshepsut allowed this single man to care and educate her only child, Neferure, shows the amount of trust she had in Senenmut. All evidence indicated that Hatshepsut thought very highly of Senenmut. Although this does not ultimately insinuate they had a relationship, this affair would ruin Hatshepsut?s excellent title, and cause ?lost confidence? from the other officials. Hatshepsut was a ambitious woman, who strived to maintain peace in Egypt and be represented as a traditional Pharaoh, I do not believe she would have jeopardise her reign for love.


New Member
Dec 9, 2004
far far away
wow i love the people who posted these!!!
i needed these notes so bad for my exam tomorrow


New Member
Jun 5, 2005
wow... after reading alot of this information i must say..

on behalf of everyone doing this course.. THANKS FOR THE NOTES ^^ really helps when ur confoozed


New Member
Jan 21, 2005

You guys have singlehandedly saved my HSC, my teacher didnt teach us anything on the syllabus, then proceeded to leave the school halfway thru the year, leaving us with just two topices of actual content taught by our new teach (who is awesum btw)

So thankyou for saving me!


Matt Smiles
Feb 23, 2005
Northern Beaches
could be a little late to post this but maybe someone from current year 12 will get this :) there was never any hard evidence if Hatshepsut ever led military campaigns herself, mainly because during her regency/co-regency with Thutmose III she gave control of the army to him. So in your answers you can show that both the Palestine and Nubian areas were kept subdued during this time, so that is some evidence to show that she might have made a campaign. You can like this to the deliberate removal of her name from all public places shortly after her death.


New Member
Feb 7, 2006
does anyone plz have any info on how hatshepsut showed her devotion to amun.


Sep 6, 2007
Byron Bay, NSW
Re: Hatshepsut Summary

angelduck said:
Heya peeps, this wasn't my final summary, but i cant put that one up as i gave all my ancient notes to a friend for his HSC. I hope this helps u guyz in ur midcourses!
Thanks alot angel!! Thats a great help!


Sep 6, 2007
Byron Bay, NSW
matty_smiles said:
could be a little late to post this but maybe someone from current year 12 will get this :) there was never any hard evidence if Hatshepsut ever led military campaigns herself, mainly because during her regency/co-regency with Thutmose III she gave control of the army to him. So in your answers you can show that both the Palestine and Nubian areas were kept subdued during this time, so that is some evidence to show that she might have made a campaign. You can like this to the deliberate removal of her name from all public places shortly after her death.
"Her arrow was amongst the Northerners,"

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