Private buildings= buildings assoc. w/ accommodation + business. w/in 1 insula or block= many types of housing + variety of businesses or 1 enormous private house consumer whole block. Typical P insula:
• 5 houses w/ gardens
• 4 shops, 2 of which belonged to an ironmonger + bronze smith
• A laundry + cloth-finishing business (fullonica)
• Rented bed-sitting accommodation on top of shops
• Bar + tavern
• Underground bath house belonging to 1 of houses
HOUSES Earthquake many wealthy Pompeians leave to live in countryside. Former residences converted into shops, rented accommodation + businesses. Stay= succumb to bad eco times + rented out part of homes. E.g. Julia Felix. Poorer people lived in rooms built into fronts of large houses reached by outside staircase + balcony. Tradesmen + small businessmen lived at the back or on top of their shops.
No really typical Pompeian or Herculanean house (domus) although homes of wealthier classes follow similar basic plan. Individ variations depended on wealth of owner, when house constructed, whether located in crowded insula. In P: domus usually single-storied, in H- many are 2 storied w/ terraces, hanging gardens, alcoves. Although houses surrounded w/ walls + had few windows not dark + dingy openings in roof.
Unimpressive narrow entrance from the street, usually betw. sev shops, opened into bright, high-ceilinged atrium w/ mosaic floors, frescoed walls= formal reception hall of house (public + private sectors). Opening in roof (compluvium) often provided w/ terracotta sprouts to direct rain water off the sloping roof into the shallow pool (impluvium) beneath. Sometimes water from impluvium drained into cistern below house supply of fresh water for household uses.
In the atrium= shrine + images of household gods:
• Lares, general protectors of the house + family
• Penates, guardians of the storeroom/pantry
• Genius, advising spirit of the house
Their shrine was called a Lararium + everyday master of house present tray of food offerings + say prayer, rest of family poured drink in homage to gods. Homes of wealthy merchants- figure of Mercury, fleet-footed god of commerce. Atrium sometimes filled w/ portrait busts + death masks of owner’s ancestors. Here clients waited before being admitted into formal living room (tablinum), largest of rooms leading off the atrium. Master of house carried out daily business in tablinum + entertained guests who were not close personal friends.
Leading off both sides of atrium= windowless bedrooms (cubiculae). Often lavishly decorated but rather small + contained littler furniture e.g. bed (often built into an alcove in the war) + lamp.
Many houses= 2 dining rooms (triclinia). Colder months: protected + shuttered triclinium. Summer- open air; opened onto garden. Triclinium- 3 cushioned covered couches which each accommodate 3 reclining people. Ideal no# dinner party regarded as 9- strict seating arrangement. Master of house, wife, son= left hand couch; most important guest positioned on 2nd couch nearest owner... arranged according to status.
Garden regarded as an essential part of the good life + most homes have garden retreat of some kind. Peristyle or colonnaded garden court planted w/ shade trees partic nut + fruit trees; flowers + herbs + incorporated fish ponds + fountains; decorated w/ marble + bronze statuary + landscape murals create illusion of more space. Jashemski worked for 35 years studying remains if gardens in P:
• Contours of the soil
• Carbonised remains of plants
• Ancient pollen grains
• Cavities left by decomposed root systems
In 1 garden discovered evidence of elaborate watering system, cavities left by numerous stakes + fragments of perfume bottles deduced owned grew flowers for manufacture, then sale, of perfume.
Other rooms: kitchen w/ a brick oven + portable liquid heater, toilet which drained into a pit, various storage rooms e.g. pantries (penaria) + open halls (alae).
INSULAE w/in 1 block often a mix of housing styles, sizes + functions. E.g. Insula IV of H inc:
• House of the Mosaic Atrium- 14 rooms, famous floor in b+w mosaic w/ geometric design
• House of the Alcove- 2 entrances as formed from 2 former houses, 18 rooms
• House of the Fullery- made up of shops. 1 of oldest houses in H
• Smaller house w/ 2 residences
• Food shops + dwellings + workshops
• House of the Stags
PUBLIC BUILDINGS (not exactly sure what you wanted- these notes are a bit over the top)
Many of public buildings were clustered around the forum: political, commercial + religious centre of the town. Many still undergoing repair from AD62. Forum= open rectangular area about 620metres squared, paved in limestone. Surrounded on 3 sides by 2-storeyed colonnade which concealed the public buildings on the east, west, south.
Only building visible from Forum’s centre= Temple of Jupiter, on northern side. Jupiter= chief god of Roman pantheon. Flanked by 2 triumphal arches, may have been dedicated to Emperor Caligula + Nero. Both in disgrace by 79AD + their statues removed.
Buildings were painted in vivid colours. Pompeians: bright reds, yellow, greens w/ touches of black.
Around forum’s sides: about 40 statues of gods, emperors, distinguished citizens. Many statues toppled over in earthquake 62. all remains: pedestals.
Vehicles prevented from entering forum. Place for gossip, political debates, weekly markets, bickered over purchases, religious ceremonies, musical debates, latest news.
1 end: wall for communicating a variety of information e.g. court regulations. During elections: campaign posters. Men hired periodically to whitewash the walls so that scriptores or sign writers could update notices in red/black ink.
1st monumental arrangement dates from 2ndBC. Located at the intersection betw. 2 main streets of original urban centre. In 1st AD forum highlighted the celebratory intention of the imperial house: monumental bases for commemorative statues were placed on south side. Statues of illustrious citizens stood along the porticoes. In centre of western side= an orator’s rostrum
TEMPLE OF APOLLO Along w/ Doric temple, most ancient sanctuary in P evidenced by surviving architectural decoration dating from 575-550BC, current layout from 2nd BC. Combines Italic (high podium w/ front entry stairs) + Greek elements (colonnade around the cell). Floor of the cell: polychrome stone diamond shapes cube-like effect. Either side porticoes: statues of Apollo + Diana depicted as archers. Altar at foot of steps- Sullan period; colonnade w/ sundial from Aug
BASILICA built 2nd half 2nd BC- part of plan to create monuments throughout city. Rectangular layout w/ 3 naves, ceiling sloping straight down in both directions from central columns + half columns at the top of the walls. At back= tribunal where magistrates sat. building dedicated to administering justice + for business negotiations
BUILDING OF EUMACHIA priestess Eumachia, patron of the fullers, had building erected Tiberian period (14-37). Façade of opus latericium dates after 62AD. Niches on front held celebratory statues of the imperial house. Interior: columned portico w/ statues of Concordia Augustus in the exedra at the back, + of members of imperial family on either side. Statue of Eumachia in niche behind exedra. May’ve been the wool market or the headquarters of the fullones guild. To right of entrance: walled jar in which people could urinate by climbing short staircase.
AEDES GENII AUGUSTI attributed to worship of the genius of the emperor Vespasian, building under construction/being remodelled 79. Small temple at back of outdoor courtyard. 4 columns on front; statue of emperor. Central white marble altar. Few scholars believe dedicated to the Genius of Octavian Augustus then Genius of the various emperors that followed, finally Titus Flavius Vespasian.
SANCTUARY OF THE PUBLIC LARES may have been built after earthquake, dedicated to gods who protected P. some scholars: dates from before 62AD. Related to worship of imperial family. Complex architecture, w/ numerous niches + columns vs the walls, were to be richly decorated w/ marble, never completed. Support structure: opus latericium, the masonry in opus reticulatum + opus incertum. In arena’s centre= sacrificial altar
MACELLUM 2nd BC but underwent subsequent renovations. Bases in front of the entrance portico held commemorative statues of illustrious citizens. Interior: porticoed courtyard w/ shops. 12 bases in centre: stands for wooden poles that supported a conical roof; at the back, room on right for sale of meat + fish, one on left for banquets in the emperor’s honour. Northwest wall: frescoes in ‘fourth style’: fantasy architectural elements alternating w/ panels of isolated figures, paintings of mythological figures, popular still lifes.
TEMPLE OF JUPITER 2ndBC. High podium, entry staircase on front. statue of Jupiter: head remains from Sullan period (c. 80BC). Floor of cell had rhomboid polychrome stone patter, arranged in imitation of perspective cubes (opus scutulatum). Podium restored Tiberian period
FORUM GRANARY Produce market (‘forum olitorio’) built after 62AD may not have been completed. At time of eruption: form of porticoed rooms, flanked by large latrine. Now used to store archaeological materials from P
MENSA PONDERARIA near produce market, built into east wall of temple of Apollo, beginning late 2ndBC, public office to control weights + measures, gauged according to local Oscan system,, later standardised to Augustan system (inscription on front c. 20BC). 2 stacked limestone benches, each w/ cavities corresponding to diff measurements, hole at bottom though which pass measured product
FORUM BATHS built after 80BC. On either side of furnaces: men’s + women’s sections. According to sequence: apodyterium (dressing room), frigidarium (cold bathing room), tepidarium (warm room), caldarium (hot room). Porticoed palaestra. Tepidarium heated by large bronze brazier. Telamons separate the niches to hold unguents + bath items; stuccoes in relief decorated vault w/ geometric partitions + mythological figures. Public baths inexpensive + heavily used; bath time: early afternoon
TEMPLE OF FORTUNA AUGUSTA in P, duumvir M Tullius insist on building temple in honour of emperor, at own expense + on own land. Marble columns + Corinthian capitals on front. the cell, preceded by 4 columns in front + 2 on either side, held statue of Fortuna on side niches, those of imperial family + perhaps Tullius.
STABIAN BATHS city’s most ancient bath building (2ndBC). East of porticoed central palaestra are bathing rooms in women + men’s sections: frigidarium (w/ tub for cold bath), apodyterium, tepidarium, caldarium, furnaces. North: large latrine, west: swimming pool (natatio). Entrance + in palaestra: elegant decorations of polychrome stucco w/ figurative + mythological subjects in ‘fourth style’; made of lime + calcite, stucco was moisture resistant. Floor supported by short brick pillars (suspensurae) to leave empty space (hypocaustum) below, through which warm air produced by furnaces could circulate; also flowed through ducts in walls envelop room completely
TRIANGULAR FORUM southern edge of hill of P, stretching towards sea + River Sarno, triangular piazza introduced by majestic propylaea (gateways) w/ Ionic columns, enveloped by portico of 95 Doric columns- except on south. Part of complete urban development project that arranged entire area of ‘theatre’s + ‘temples.’
GREAT THEATRE 2ndBC. Tiers of seats (cavea) in horseshoe shape divided into 3 zones: lower (ima cavea) covered w/ marble reserved for decurions + important citizens. Ring corridor supporting upper tiers + ‘balconies’ along side entrances, added during Augustan period. 5000 spectators. Stage + opus latericium backdrop-decorated w/ marbles + statues from restoration (62). Works likely inc the Atellanae (popular farces in Oscan language), plays of Plautus + Terentius, mimes + pantomimes
QUADRIPORTICUS OF THE THEATRES sort of foyer: large space porticoed on 4-sides= classic feature of Hellenic theatres where spectators of 2 nearby theatres could stroll during intermission, shelter if rain. Gladiator weapons suggest during final years= barracks for gladiators
SMALL THEATRE early years of Sullan colony. Inscriptions roof to ensure excellent acoustics, rested on outer walls that bordered the tiers of seats (Cavea), decorated w/ sculpted telamons; lower part (ima cavea) has low, wide seating (bisellia) reserved for decurions; a balustrade decorated w/ winged gryphon paws distinguishes it from media cavea
TEMPLE OF ISIS porticoed courtyard w/ stuccoed Corinthian columns, hosts the temple on podium in its centre. End 2nd BC, rebuilt in opus latericium after 62. Front steps lead to the pronaos w/ 4 columns in front + 2 on sides + 2 niches that held statues of Anubis + Harpokrates. At back: wide cell= base for religious statues perhaps inc. Isis. Various service + worship rooms open along the portico, inside contains well in northeast corner, the purgatorium (fenced area w/ water basin used in purification rites) + altars. Rich sculptural stucco + ‘fourth style’ painted plaster decorations.
SAMNITE PALAESTRA behind temple of Isis. Dedication engraved in Oscan language dates to 2nd half 2ndBC. Rectangular layout, porticoes on 3 sides + pedestal in centre of south side- award ceremonies
AMPHITHEATRE approx 70BC. Auditorium divided into 3 sectors: ima cavea (front row), the media + summa, higher up for everyone else. A velarium, awning, often spread over stands= protection from sun. 59AD- violent riot betw. ‘fans’ from P + Nucera. ‘disqualified’ for 10 years, cancelled after 62.
GREAT PALAESTRA large, rectangular building w/ porticoes along 3 sides, pool in centre from Augustan period. exercise park for youth associations promoted by emperor’s prop. Emperor worshipped in room at centre of west portico. Along portico: double row of sycamores ensured additional area of shade.